What is the Paris Climate Agreement?
Climate change is a global emergency that goes beyond national borders. It is an issue that requires international cooperation and coordinated solutions at all levels.
At the UN Climate Change Conference (COP21) in Paris, world leaders made a breakthrough on 12 December 2015 to combat climate change and its adverse effects: the historic Paris Agreement, which closely concerns all citizens of the world. The agreement has set long-term goals that will guide all nations.
- Continuing efforts to limit global temperature rise this century to 2 degrees Celsius while significantly reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, while further limiting the increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius
- Countries to review their commitments every five years
- Provide financing to developing countries to mitigate climate change, strengthen resilience and improve their ability to adapt to climate impacts.
The agreement is a legally binding international agreement. For the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had to submit their ratifications. As a result of the process, it entered into force on 4 November 2016. Today, 191 Parties (190 countries plus the European Union) have joined the Paris Agreement.
The agreement includes commitments from all countries to work together to reduce their emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change, and urges countries to strengthen their commitments over time. The agreement provides a way for developed countries to assist developing countries in their climate mitigation and adaptation efforts, while establishing a framework for transparent monitoring and reporting of countries' climate goals.
The Paris Agreement provides a durable framework that guides global efforts for decades to come. It marks the beginning of the transition to a net-zero emissions world. The implementation of the agreement is also necessary for the achievement of sustainable development goals.
How Does the Paris Agreement Work?
The Paris Agreement works on a five-year cycle of increasingly ambitious climate action by countries. Every five years, each country is expected to submit an updated national climate action plan known as the Nationally Determined Contribution (UOBK) or NDC (Nationally Determined Contribution).
Countries report in their IOCs the actions they will take to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement. Countries also communicate in their NDC actions to build resilience to adapt to the effects of rising temperatures.
To better frame long-term goal-oriented efforts, the Paris Agreement invites countries to create and present long-term strategies. Unlike NDCs, they are not mandatory.
The operational details of the practical implementation of the Paris Agreement were decided at the UN Climate Change Conference (COP24) in Katowice, Poland in December 2018, colloquially called the Paris Rulebook, with several unresolved issues.
Transparency covers all key areas including finance, mitigation and adaptation, enabling parties in need to implement and report on their commitments in a transparent, complete, comparable and consistent manner while providing flexibility in light of their capacities.
It will also enable the parties to gradually increase their contribution to the fight against climate change in order to achieve the long-term goals of the Agreement.
Turkey and the Paris Agreement
Turkey is among the first signatories of the Paris Agreement. Six countries around the world, namely Eritrea, Iraq, Iran, Libya and Yemen, have yet to ratify the agreement. Turkey was the last G20 country to ratify the agreement. Thus, 192 of the 197 countries that signed the Paris Agreement have also ratified the agreement (Updated on 07.10.2021).
The energy sector is responsible for more than 75% of greenhouse gas emissions in Turkey. Turkey; improvement of energy efficiency and savings, increasing the share of renewable energy sources, transition to low-carbon fuels and implementation of measures to encourage emission reduction. A number of regulatory arrangements are made for the implementation of the above-mentioned policies.
As Enge Energy, we develop products in line with the use of renewable energy sources and “0” carbon emission targets and aim to become the leader in the sector.