What are the Fundamentals of Climate Change?

What are the Fundamentals of Climate Change?

The sun serves as the primary energy source for the Earth's climate. Some of the incoming sunlight is directly reflected back into space, especially by shiny surfaces such as ice and clouds, and the rest is absorbed by the surface and atmosphere. Most of this absorbed solar energy is re-emitted as heat (long wave or infrared radiation). The atmosphere, in turn, absorbs and re-radiates heat, some of which escapes into space. Any disruption in this balance of incoming and outgoing energy will affect the climate. For example, small changes in energy output from the Sun will directly affect this balance.

Greenhouse gases emitted as a result of human activities change the energy balance of the Earth and thus its climate. Humans also affect climate by changing the nature of land surfaces (for example, by clearing forests for agriculture) and by emitting pollutants that affect the amount and type of particles in the atmosphere.

Scientists have determined that, considering all human and natural factors, the Earth's climate balance is shifting towards warming, with the biggest contributor being the increase in CO2.

Human activities have added greenhouse gases to the atmosphere

Concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere have increased significantly since the Industrial Revolution began.

Since pre-industrial times, the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased by over 40%, methane by more than 150%, and nitrous oxide by roughly 20%. More than half of the increase in CO2 has occurred since 1970. Increases in all three gases contribute to the warming of the Earth, and the increase in CO2 plays the biggest role.

Climate records show a warming trend

Predicting global mean surface air temperature rise requires careful analysis of millions of measurements from all over the world, including land stations, ships and satellites.

Many other effects associated with the warming trend have become apparent in recent years. Arctic summer sea ice cover has shrunk significantly. The heat content of the ocean increased.

Many complex processes shape our climate

Based on the physics of the amount of energy that CO2 absorbs and emits alone, a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration from pre-industrial levels (down to about 560 ppm) would in itself result in a global average temperature increase of about 1°C.). But in the overall climate system, things are more complex; warming leads to other effects (feedback) that increase or decrease the initial warming.

Human activities are changing the climate

The rigorous analysis of all the data and evidence shows that much of the global warming observed over the past 50 years cannot be explained by natural causes and instead requires an important role for the impact of human activities. To discern human influence on climate, scientists must consider the many natural variations that affect temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate over time scales from local to global, days to decades, and longer.

How will the climate change in the future?

Scientists have made great advances in observations, theory, and modeling of Earth's climate system, and these advances have allowed them to predict future climate change with increasing confidence. However, a few key issues make it impossible to give precise predictions of how global or regional temperature trends will evolve into the future ten years to ten years from now.

First, we cannot predict how much CO2 human activities will emit, as it depends on factors such as how the global economy develops and how society's energy production and consumption will change in the coming years.

Second, with current understanding of the complexity of how climate feedbacks work, there are a number of possible implications even for a given CO2 emissions scenario

Finally, over a period of about ten years, natural variability can alter the effects of a fundamental trend in temperature. Taken together, all model projections indicate that the Earth will continue to warm significantly more over the next few decades to centuries.

Turkey carries out studies and regulations that will not harm development goals, develops bilateral cooperation, and actively participates in regional and international studies in order to prevent negative developments and to compensate for the damage that has occurred, and to ensure that a clean environment is delivered to future generations.

As Enge Energy, we continue to develop products that will minimize the effects of climate change and support zero carbon emissions.